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Haneri

Kanji, Kana & Pronunciation
Haneri 03.jpg
Romaji Haneri
Kanji 半襟
Kana はんえり
Audio Coming Soon
(n) temporary collar cover for juban


A decorative piece of cloth worn over a juban collar to add style or color to an outfit. Also added to protect the juban collar, as it's easily removable for washing.

Characteristics

  • about 16.5cm (6") wide by 110cm (43") long
  • often embroidered with flower motifs or geometrics
  • usually polyester (easier to wash/clean)
  • can also be made of crepe, satin, linen, leno weave gauze, or Shioze silk[1]
  • often chirimen texture


If embroidered, the embroidered section is usually about 25cm (9.5") long. It's located about 20cm up from the end of the fabric. There are some unusual haneri where the design embroidered on each side is different (see blue/purple haneri below).

Adding a haneri to a juban sometimes gives a space to insert an eri-shin to stiffen the juban collar if the juban doesn't have a space to be inserted.

How to Use

A haneri is attached to cover the juban collar or to an easy collar. Align the center of the haneri with the middle-back of the collar and pin in place to prevent slipping when sewing. It may not cover the entire juban or easy collar; that's okay. Now attach to the garment using multiple safety pins or by sewing it on using basting stitches. Hand-sewn basting stitches can be very large - several centimeters per stitch. It does not have to be small like a basting stitch on a sewing machine.

To clean the haneri, if it's polyester, remove it from the garment and wash as you'd wash other delicate items, either by hand or with a washing machine. It may even be safe to use a stain remover if the collar is badly marked with makeup. As it's polyester, it may be safe in your dryer if you feel comfortable putting it in there. If not, dry flat. If the haneri is silk, it's best to wash as you would other delicate silks. Once the haneri is dry, store rolled up (you can use old paper towel tubes or strips of paper taped around them) or fold flat for storage. If folded, it may need to be ironed before being attached to the collar to prevent fold lines from showing.


Gallery

Formality & TPO

Haneri can be worn with any type of kimono, except perhaps for mofuku (mourning wear). They are often worn with an easy collar under yukata to give it a more fun look or to make the yukata more kimono-ish in appearance.

The haneri with many colors or darker bases are generally not as formal as those with white or off-white bases, and are more frequently seen worn with komon kimono. Colored haneri are worn with furisode; this is acceptable due to the vibrancy of the outfit. It is when wearing haneri with kurotomesode that one must be most careful in choice. Formality rules indicate that white or off-white haneri with embroidery in light colors, including metallics, is the type to wear with this kind of kimono.

Some haneri are completely beaded. These are considered casual. A haneri with embroidery is more formal than one that doesn't have any embroidery.

Changes in Fashion

Meiji

The style was to show larger amounts of haneri, which were often very colourful and embroidered. More haneri showed because the kimono was not crossed as tightly. Differences were noted between women of higher class and those of lower class. The higher-class women preferred plain white or light colored collars with no embroidery, whereas the low-city women chose their haneri giving care to color and pattern. A possible reason for favoring a plain white collar might be because it suggested the look of a suit collar over a white dress shirt, which was a modern Western look at the time.[2]

Taisho

The beginning of the Greater Taisho Era saw a dramatic change in kitsuke, not only resulting in a drastic difference in how the haneri was worn, but also leading toward the style that became modern-day kitsuke . Perhaps in effort to emulate the emerging fashion silhouettes from the West, the kimono went from being worn loose to pulled much tighter across the entire body, especially the bust. This first resulted in a pigeon chested look similar to Edwardian fashion (most likely caused by the lack of bust suppression), which in turn morphed a few short years later into a completely flattened bust reminiscent of Flapper fashion.

This change was in large part due to the raising of the obi, which during previous eras was worn considerably lower, sitting on the hips. The Greater Taisho Era saw the obi being worn significantly higher, almost bypassing the waist to sit over the ribs and bust. With the kimono being pulled tighter to accommodate the obi, the juban (and by extension the haneri), crossed over closer at the base of the neck. While there were likely basic rules for appropriate kitsuke during the Taisho, it seems that the amount of haneri shown was possibly a personal choice with the social class and age of the person being taken into account.

During early Taisho, patterned and coloured haneri were still regularly worn, not only by regular women, but also by geisha. Entering into Showa, however, white haneri started to become the standard.

Showa

Shufu no Tomo magazines from the 1970s show only white, unpatterned juban collars with any kimono other than furisode. This is also evidenced in the color photographs from The Book of Kimono, which show plain white collars with all kimono, including furisode; however, the text indicates that colored haneri are acceptable for formal occasions[3]. This is in contrast to earlier periods, such as Taisho, when women would wear a variety of colors and patterns on their juban collars. In addition, often only a small amount of haneri would show on women during the Showa period. Generally, the younger the woman, the more haneri she showed; older women would have only a sliver.

Heisei

It is only recently, approximately since 2005, that haneri with colored bases and embroidery have become more prevalent and acceptable for women out of the "young miss" stage. Before that, white, possibly with embroidery, was the acceptable standard. This change in style may be due in part to the release of Kimono Hime, a magazine promoting fun vintage fashion, starting in 2003.


DIY Info

Haneri are one of the easiest kitsuke items to make as they are long rectangles of fabric. They can be made from any kind of fabric, including printed cottons from other projects, patterned juban, or salvaged kimono or obi. To make one, wash and iron the fabric first, (the haneri will be washed often, as it's closest to your face and make-up and oils will rub off) then cut it to approximately 16cm x 110cm (6"x43"). If the fabric is prone to fraying, the edges can be finished using a machine on zigzag stitch, buttonhole/blanket stitch if by hand, or using a serger.



Article Notes

Relevant Threads / Discussions



Image Credits

  • Beaded haneri, embroidered polyester haneri with two different designs, and lace haneri copyright Aimee Major.
  • Box of haneri and formal white haneri Copyright Anna Miró.


References

  1. The Book of Kimono, Yamanaka Norio. p61. ISBN:0870117858
  2. Kimono - Fashioning Culture, by Liza Dalby. pg 93-94. ISBN:0295981555
  3. The Book of Kimono by Yamanaka Norio. p61. ISBN:0870117858