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Era Name

An era name or nengō (年号 or 元号, literally year name) is part of the Japanese calendar scheme which identifies every year by a combination of the era name, a name chosen by a ruling emperor for his period of rule, and the year number within that era. For example, 2011 by the Gregorian calendar is the 24th year of Heisei, or Heisei 24. At 64 years, the Shōwa Period has been the longest era in Japanese history. "Eras" are not to be confused with "periods"; the Edo or Tokugawa Period, for example, lasted from 1603-1868, but comprised several eras named by different rulers. Most nengō comprise two kanji; although there have been 247 eras to date, only 72 kanji have been used in naming them.

The use of nengō was borrowed by Japan (as well as by Korea and Vietnam) from Chinese imperial culture, although the Japanese system is independent of those systems and is still in official use today, with government documents in Japan usually requiring era names.

The first nengō was Taika (大化, big change), in celebration of the political and organizational of the great Taika Reforms, a set of doctrines established by Emperor Kōtoku shortly after the death of Prince Shōtoku and the defeat of the Soga clan, uniting Japan. Although the regular practice of proclaiming successive nengō was briefly interrupted in the late seventh century, it was permanently re-adopted in 701 during the reign of Emperor Mommu (697–707) and have been used continuously since then.[1]

Historical nengō

Prior to the Meiji Period, era names were decided by court officials and were frequently changed, with a new nengō usually proclaimed within a year or two of the ascension of a new emperor to the throne, and a new nengō designated on the first, fifth and 58th years of the Sexagenary Cycle, because they were inauspicious years. Era names were also changed following felicitous events or natural disasters.

The nengō system was briefly abandoned after Emperor Kōtoku's death, and no nengō were designated between 654 and 686. The system was briefly reinstated by Emperor Temmu in 686, but was again abandoned upon his death approximately two months later. In 701, Emperor Mommu once again reinstated the nengō system, and it has continued uninterrupted since then.

Imperial year

The imperial year (皇紀 kōki) is an epoch system used before World War II. Kōki 1 is the year when legendary Emperor Jimmu founded Japan, 660 BC according to the Gregorian calendar. This epoch system was adopted in 1872 to emphasize and legitimize the legendary history of Japan and the imperial family because it is a larger number than the Anno Domini/Current Era year (AD/CE) system. For example, 1940 was officially Kōki 2600. The 1940 Summer Olympics and Tokyo Expo were planned as anniversary events, but were canceled due to the Second Sino-Japanese War. The Japanese Zero Fighter aircraft was named after this year. During the occupation of Japan after WWII the United States stopped the official use of Kōki, and today it is rarely used.

Nengō in modern Japan

Mutsuhito assumed the throne in 1867, in the third year of the Keiō (慶応) era at the end of the Edo period. On October 23, 1868, following the Meiji Restoration, the era name was changed to Meiji (明治), and a "one reign, one era name" (一世一元 issei-ichigen) system was adopted. In modern practice, the first year of a nengō (元年 gannen) begins immediately upon the emperor's ascension to the throne and ends on December 31. Subsequent years follow the Gregorian calendar, starting on January 1 and ending on December 31. This means that one Gregorian calendar year can have two era names: for example, the Meiji era ended with the Meiji Emperor's death on July 30, 1912, and the Taishō era (大正) era was immediately proclaimed. 1912 is therefore both Meiji 45 and Taishō 1 (大正元年 Taishō gannen).

This practice was formalized in law in 1979 with the passage of the Era Name Law (元号法 gengō-hō), and since the Meiji Restoration there have four eras: Meiji, Taishō, Shōwa and Heisei, each corresponding with the rule of one emperor. In Japanese, the reigning emperor is most frequently referred to by the title Tennō Heika (天皇陛下, literally "His Majesty the heavenly sovereign") or Kinjō Heika (今上陛下, literally "his current majesty"), or simply Tennō, while outside Japan the emperor is typically known by his given name. Following his death, the emperor is customarily referred to by his reign's era name both inside and outside Japan. For example, Mutsuhito is posthumously known as "Emperor Meiji (明治天皇 Meiji Tennō). However, the reign name is never used to refer to a living emperor prior to his death.

List of era names

TABLE: Gregorian calendar dates and equivalent Japanese era name / nengō dates
Gregorian calendar Kanji Romanization Notes
Asuka period (538–710); see Non-nengō periods
645[2] 大化 Taika Emperor Kōtoku, 645–654[3]
650[4] 白雉 Hakuchi also Hakuhō[5]
654 Naming of eras temporarily discontinued from 654–686
686[6] 朱鳥 Shuchō also Suchō, Akamitori or Akamidori; Emperor Temmu, 672–686[7]
686 Naming of eras temporarily discontinued from 686–701
701[8] 大宝 Taihō also Daihō; Emperor Mommu, 697–707[9]
704 慶雲 Keiun also Kyōun; Empress Gemmei, 707–715[10]
708 和銅 Wadō
Nara period (710–794)
715 霊亀 Reiki Empress Genshō, 715–724[11]
717 養老 Yōrō
724 神亀 Jinki also Shinki; Emperor Shōmu, 724–749[12]
729 天平 Tenpyō also Tenbyō or Tenhei
749 天平感宝 Tenpyō-kanpō also Tenbyō-kanpō
749 天平勝宝 Tenpyō-shōhō also Tenbyō-shōbō or Tenpei-shōhō; Empress Kōken, 749–758[13]
757 天平宝字 Tenpyō-hōji also Tenbyō-hōji or Tenpei-hōji; Emperor Junnin, 758–764;[14] Empress Shōtoku, 764–770[15]
765 天平神護 Tenpyō-jingo also Tenbyō-jingo or Tenhei-jingo
767 神護景雲 Jingo-keiun
770 宝亀 Hōki Emperor Kōnin, 770–781[16]
781 天応 Ten'ō Emperor Kammu, 781–806[17]
782 延暦 Enryaku
Heian Period (794–1192)
806 大同 Daidō Emperor Heizei, 806–809;[18] Emperor Saga, 809–823[19]
810 弘仁 Kōnin Emperor Junna, 823–833[20]
824 天長 Tenchō Emperor Ninmyō, 833–850[21]
834 承和 Jōwa also Shōwa or Sōwa
848 嘉祥 Kashō also Kajō; Emperor Montoku, 850–858[22]
851 仁寿 Ninju
854 斉衡 Saikō
857 天安 Ten'an also Tennan; Emperor Seiwa, 858–876[23]
859 貞観 Jōgan Emperor Yōzei, 876–884[24]
877 元慶 Gangyō also Gankyō or Genkei; Emperor Kōkō, 884–887[25]
885 仁和 Ninna also Ninwa; Emperor Uda, 887–897[26]
889 寛平 Kanpyō also Kanpei or Kanbyō or Kanbei or Kanhei; Emperor Daigo, 887–930[27]
898 昌泰 Shōtai
901 延喜 Engi
923 延長 Enchō Emperor Suzaku, 930–946[28]
931 承平 Jōhei also Shōhei
938 天慶 Tengyō also Tenkei or Tenkyō; Emperor Murakami, 946–967[29]
947 天暦 Tenryaku also Tenreki
957 天徳 Tentoku
961 応和 Ōwa
964 康保 Kōhō Emperor Reizei, 967–969[30]
968 安和 Anna also Anwa; Emperor En'yū, 969–984[31]
970 天禄 Tenroku
973 天延 Ten'en
976 貞元 Jōgen also Teigen
978 天元 Tengen
983 永観 Eikan also Yōkan; Emperor Kazan, 984–986[32]
985 寛和 Kanna also Kanwa; Emperor Ichijō, 986–1011[33]
987 永延 Eien also Yōen
988 永祚 Eiso also Yōso
990 正暦 Shōryaku also Jōryaku or Shōreki
995 長徳 Chōtoku
999 長保 Chōhō
1004 寛弘 Kankō Emperor Sanjō, 1011–1016[34]
1012 長和 Chōwa Emperor Go-Ichijō, 1016–1036[35]
1017 寛仁 Kannin
1021 治安 Jian also Chian
1024 万寿 Manju
1028 長元 Chōgen Emperor Go-Suzaku, 1036–1045[36]
1037 長暦 Chōryaku also Chōreki
1040 長久 Chōkyū
1044 寛徳 Kantoku Emperor Go-Reizei, 1045–1068[37]
1046 永承 Eishō also Eijō or Yōjō
1053 天喜 Tengi also Tenki
1058 康平 Kōhei
1065 治暦 Jiryaku also Chiryaku
1069 延久 Enkyū Emperor Go-Sanjō, 1068–1073[38]
1074 承保 Jōhō also Shōhō or Shōho; Emperor Shirakawa, 1073–1086[39]
1077 承暦 Jōryaku also Shōryaku or Shōreki
1081 永保 Eihō also Yōhō
1084 応徳 Ōtoku
1087 寛治 Kanji Emperor Horikawa, 1087–1107[40]
1094 嘉保 Kahō
1096 永長 Eichō also Yōchō
1097 承徳 Jōtoku also Shōtoku
1099 康和 Kōwa
1104 長治 Chōji
1106 嘉承 Kajō also Kashō or Kasō; Emperor Toba, 1107–1123[41]
1108 天仁 Tennin
1110 天永 Ten'ei also Ten'yō
1113 永久 Eikyū also Yōkyū
1118 元永 Gen'ei
1120 保安 Hōan Emperor Sutoku, 1123–1142[42]
1124 天治 Tenji also Tenchi
1126 大治 Daiji also Taiji
1131 天承 Tenshō also Tenjō
1132 長承 Chōshō also Chōjō
1135 保延 Hōen
1141 永治 Eiji
1142 康治 Kōji Emperor Konoe, 1142–1155[43]
1144 天養 Ten'yō also Tennyō
1145 久安 Kyūan
1151 仁平 Ninpei also Ninpyō or Ninbyō or Ninhyō or Ninhei
1154 久寿 Kyūju Emperor Go-Shirakawa, 1155–1158[44]
1156 保元 Hōgen also Hogen; Emperor Nijō, 1158–1165[45]
1159 平治 Heiji also Byōji
1160 永暦 Eiryaku also Yōryaku
1161 応保 Ōhō
1163 長寛 Chōkan also Chōgan
1165 永万 Eiman also Yōman; Emperor Rokujō, 1165–1168[46]
1166 仁安 Nin'an also Ninnan; Emperor Takakura, 1168–1180[46]
1169 嘉応 Kaō
1171 承安 Jōan also Shōan
1175 安元 Angen
1177 治承 Jishō also Jijō or Chishō; Emperor Antoku, 1180–1185[47]
1181 養和 Yōwa
1182 寿永 Juei Emperor Go-Toba, 1183–1198[48]
1184 元暦 Genryaku
1185 文治 Bunji also Monchi
1190 建久 Kenkyū Emperor Tsuchimikado, 1198–1210[49]
Kamakura period (1192–1333)
1199 正治 Shōji
1201 建仁 Kennin
1204 元久 Genkyū
1206 建永 Ken'ei also Ken'yō
1207 承元 Jōgen also Shōgen; Emperor Juntoku, 1210–1221[50]
1211 建暦 Kenryaku
1213 建保 Kenpō also Kenhō
1219 承久 Jōkyū also Shōkyū; Emperor Chūkyō, 1221.[51] Emperor Go-Horikawa, 1221–1232[52]
1222 貞応 Jōō also Teiō
1224 元仁 Gennin
1225 嘉禄 Karoku
1227 安貞 Antei also Anjō
1229 寛喜 Kangi also Kanki
1232 貞永 Jōei also Teiei; Emperor Shijō, 1232–1242[53]
1233 天福 Tenpuku also Tenfuku
1234 文暦 Bunryaku also Monryaku or Monreki
1235 嘉禎 Katei
1238 暦仁 Ryakunin also Rekinin
1239 延応 En'ō also Ennō
1240 仁治 Ninji also Ninchi; Emperor Go-Saga, 1242–1246[54]
1243 Kangen] Emperor Go-Fukakusa, 1246–1260[55]
1247 宝治 Hōji
1249 建長 Kenchō
1256 康元 Kōgen Emperor Kameyama, 1260–1274[56]
1257 正嘉 Shōka
1259 正元 Shōgen
1260 文応 Bun'ō also Bunnō
1261 弘長 Kōchō
1264 文永 Bun'ei Emperor Go-Uda, 1274–1287[57]
1275 建治 Kenji
1278 弘安 Kōan Emperor Fushimi, 1287–1298
1288 正応 Shōō
1293 永仁 Einin Emperor Go-Fushimi, 1298–1301[58]
1299 正安 Shōan Emperor Go-Nijō, 1301–1308[59]
1302 乾元 Kengen
1303 嘉元 Kagen
1306 徳治 Tokuji
1308 Enkyō also Engyō or Enkei; Emperor Hanazono, 1308–1318[60]
1311 応長 Ōchō
1312 正和 Shōwa
1317 文保 Bunpō also Bunhō; Emperor Go-Daigo, 1318–1339[61]
1319 元応 Gen'ō also Gennō
1321 元亨 Genkō
1324 正中 Shōchū
1326 嘉暦 Karyaku
1329 元徳 Gentoku
1331 元弘 Genkō
Nanboku-chō period (1334–1392)
*Nanboku-chō Southern Court
1334 建武 Kenmu also Kenbu
1336 延元 Engen
1340 興国 Kōkoku
1346 正平 Shōhei
1370 建徳 Kentoku
1372 文中 Bunchū
1375 天授 Tenju
1381 弘和 Kōwa
1384 元中 Genchū Genchū 9 becomes Meitoku 3 in post Nanboku-chō reunification
*Nanboku-chō Northern Court
1332 正慶 Shōkei also Shōkyō
1334 建武 Kenmu also Kenbu
1338 暦応 Ryakuō also Rekiō
1342 康永 Kōei
1345 貞和 Jōwa also Teiwa
1350 観応 Kannō also Kan'ō
1352 文和 Bunna also Bunwa
1356 延文 Enbun
1361 康安 Kōan
1362 貞治 Jōji also Teiji
1368 応安 Ōan
1375 永和 Eiwa
1379 康暦 Kōryaku
1381 永徳 Eitoku
1384 至徳 Shitoku
1387 嘉慶 Kakei also Kakyō
1389 康応 Kōō
1390 明徳 Meitoku Meitoku 3 replaces Genchū 9 in post-Nanboku-chō reunification
Muromachi period (1392–1573)
1394 応永 Ōei Emperor Shōkō, 1412–1428.[62]
1428 正長 Shōchō Emperor Go-Hanazono, 1428–1464.[63]
1429 永享 Eikyō also Eikō
1441 嘉吉 Kakitsu also Kakichi
1444 文安 Bun'an also Bunnan
1449 宝徳 Hōtoku
1452 享徳 Kyōtoku
1455 康正 Kōshō
1457 長禄 Chōroku
1460 寛正 Kanshō Emperor Go-Tsuchimikado, 1464–1500.[64]
1466 文正 Bunshō also Monshō
1467 応仁 Ōnin
1469 文明 Bunmei
1487 長享 Chōkyō
1489 延徳 Entoku
1492 明応 Meiō Emperor Go-Kashiwabara, 1500–1526.[65]
1501 文亀 Bunki
1504 永正 Eishō
1521 大永 Daiei Emperor Go-Nara, 1526–1557.[66]
1528 享禄 Kyōroku
1532 天文 Tenbun also Tenmon
1555 弘治 Kōji Emperor Ōgimachi, 1557–1586.[67]
1558 永禄 Eiroku
1570 元亀 Genki
1573 天正 Tenshō Emperor Go-Yōzei, 1586–1611
1592 文禄 Bunroku
1596 慶長 Keichō also Kyōchō; Emperor Go-Mizunoo, 1611–1629.[68]
Edo period (1603–1867)
1615 元和 Genna also Genwa
1624 寛永 Kan'ei Empress Meishō, 1629–1643; Emperor Go-Kōmyō, 1643–1654
1644 正保 Shōhō
1648 慶安 Keian also Kyōan
1652 承応 Jōō also Shōō; Emperor Go-Sai, 1655–1663
1655 明暦 Meireki also Myōryaku or Meiryaku
1658 万治 Manji
1661 寛文 Kanbun Emperor Reigen, 1663–1687[69]
1673 延宝 Enpō also Enhō
1681 天和 Tenna also Tenwa
1684 貞享 Jōkyō Emperor Higashiyama, 1687–1709
1688 元禄 Genroku
1704 宝永 Hōei Emperor Nakamikado, 1709–1735
1711 正徳 Shōtoku
1716 享保 Kyōhō Emperor Sakuramachi, 1735–1747
1736 元文 Genbun
1741 寛保 Kanpō also Kanhō
1744 延享 Enkyō Emperor Momozono, 1747–1762.[70]
1748 寛延 Kan'en
1751 宝暦 Hōreki also Hōryaku; Empress Go-Sakuramachi, 1762–1771.
1764 明和 Meiwa Emperor Go-Momozono, 1771–1779.[71]
1772 安永 An'ei Emperor Kōkaku, 1780–1817.[72]
1781 天明 Tenmei
1789 寛政 Kansei
1801 享和 Kyōwa
1804 文化 Bunka Emperor Ninkō, 1817–1846.[73]
1818 文政 Bunsei
1830 天保 Tenpō also Tenhō
1844 弘化 Kōka Emperor Kōmei, 1846–1867
1848 嘉永 Kaei
1854 安政 Ansei
1860 万延 Man'en
1861 文久 Bunkyū
1864 元治 Genji
1865 慶応 Keiō
Modern Japan (1868–present)
1868 明治 [[Meiji Period|Meiji]} Emperor Meiji, 1868–1912
1912 大正 Taishō Emperor Taishō, 1912–1926
1926 昭和 Shōwa Emperor Shōwa, 1926–1989
1989 平成 Heisei Emperor Akihito, 1989–present

Non-nengō periods

  • Reign of Emperor Jimmu, 660–581 BC
  • Reign of Emperor Suizei, 581–548 BC
  • Reign of Emperor Annei, 548–510 BC
  • Reign of Emperor Itoku, 510–475 BC
  • Reign of Emperor Kōshō, 475–392 BC
  • Reign of Emperor Kōan, 392–290 BC
  • Reign of Emperor Kōrei, 290–214 BC
  • Reign of Emperor Kōgen, 214–157 BC
  • Reign of Emperor Kaika, 157–97 BC
  • Reign of Emperor Sujin, 97–29 BC
  • Reign of Emperor Suinin, 29 BC–AD 71
  • Reign of Emperor Keikō, 71–131 AD
  • Reign of Emperor Seimu, 131–192
  • Reign of Emperor Chūai, 192–201
  • Regency of Empress Jingū, 201–270
  • Reign of Emperor Ōjin, 270–313
  • Reign of Emperor Nintoku, 313–400
  • Reign of Emperor Richū, 400–406
  • Reign of Emperor Hanzei, 406–412
  • Reign of Emperor Ingyō, 412–454
  • Reign of Emperor Ankō, 454–457
  • Reign of Emperor Yūryaku, 457–480
  • Reign of Emperor Seinei, 480–485
  • Reign of Emperor Kenzō, 485–488
  • Reign of Emperor Ninken, 488–499
  • Reign of Emperor Buretsu, 499–507
  • Reign of Emperor Keitai, 507–534
  • Reign of Emperor Ankan, 534–536
  • Reign of Emperor Senka, 536–540
  • Reign of Emperor Kinmei, 540–572
  • Reign of Emperor Bidatsu, 572–586
  • Reign of Emperor Yōmei, 586–588
  • Reign of Emperor Sushun, 588–593
  • Reign of Emperor Suiko, 593–629[74]
  • Reign of Emperor Jomei, 629–645
  • Reign of Empress Saimei, 655–662[75]
  • Reign of Emperor Tenji, 662–672[76]
  • Reign of Emperor Kōbun, 672–673[77]
  • Reign of Emperor Temmu, 673–686[78]
  • Reign of Empress Jitō, 687–697[79]
  • Reign of Emperor Mommu, 697–701[80]

Notes

  1. Brown, Delmer et al. (1979). Gukanshō, p.32.
  2. NengoCalc (645) 大化 Taika, online conversion of Japanese dates into their Western equivalents; calculation is based on tables from Tsuchihashi and Zöllner.
  3. Varley, Paul. (1980). Jinnō Shōtōki, pp. 132–133; Titsingh, Isaac. (1834). Annales des empereurs du Japon, pp. 47-50.
  4. NengoCalc (650) 白雉 Hakuchi
  5. Hakuhou jidai, JAANUS (Japanese Architecture and Art Net Users System), 2001; retrieved 24 Jan 2011.
  6. NengoCalc (686) 朱鳥 Suchō
  7. Brown; Varley, pp. 135–136; Titsingh, pp. 58-59.
  8. NengoCalc (701) 大宝 Taihō
  9. Brown, 270; Varley, pp. 137–140; Titsingh, 60
  10. Brown, 271; Varley, p. 140; Titsingh, 63
  11. Brown, 271; Varley, pp. 140–141; Titsingh, 65
  12. Brown, 272; Varley, pp. 141–143; Titsingh, 67
  13. Brown, 274; Varley, p. 143; Titsingh, 73
  14. Brown, 275; Varley, pp. 143–144; Titsingh, pp. 75–78.
  15. Brown, 276; Varley, pp. 144–147; Titsingh, 78
  16. Brown, 276; Varley, pp. 147–148; Titsingh, 81
  17. Brown; Varley, pp. 148–150; Titsingh, 86
  18. Brown, 279; Varley, p. 151; Titsingh, pp. 96–97.
  19. Brown, 280; Varley, pp. 151–164; Titsingh, 97
  20. Brown, 282; Varley, p. 164; Titsingh, 103
  21. Brown, 283; Varley, pp. 164–165; Titsingh, 106
  22. Brown, 285; Varley, p. 165; Titsingh, 112
  23. Brown, 286; Varley, pp. 166–170; Titsingh, 115
  24. Brown, 288; Varley, pp. 170–171; Titsingh, 121
  25. Brown, 289; Varley, pp. 171–175; Titsingh, 124
  26. Brown, 289; Varley, pp. 175–179; Titsingh, 125
  27. Brown, 290; Varley, pp. 179–181; Titsingh, 129
  28. Brown, 294; Varley, pp. 181–183; Titsingh, 134
  29. Brown, 295; Varley, pp. 183–190; Titsingh, 139
  30. Brown, 298; Varley, pp. 190–191; Titsingh, 142
  31. Brown, 299; Varley, pp. 191–192; Titsingh, 144
  32. Brown, 300; Varley, p. 192; Titsingh, 148
  33. Brown, 302; Varley, pp. 192–195; Titsingh, 150
  34. Brown, 307; Varley, p. 195; Titsingh, 154
  35. Brown, 307; Varley, pp. 195–196; Titsingh, 156
  36. Brown, 310; Varley, p. 197; Titsingh, 160
  37. Brown, 311; Varley, pp. 197–198; Titsingh, 162
  38. Brown, 314; Varley, pp. 198–199; Titsingh, 166
  39. Brown, 315; Varley, pp. 199–202; Titsingh, 169
  40. Brown, 317; Varley, p. 202; Titsingh, 172
  41. Brown, 320; Varley, pp. 203–204; Titsingh, 178
  42. Brown, 322; Varley, pp. 204–205; Titsingh, 181
  43. Brown, 324; Varley, p. 205; Titsingh, 186
  44. Brown, 326; Varley, pp. 205–208; Titsingh, 188–190.
  45. Brown, 327; Varley, pp. 208–212; Titsingh, 191
  46. 46.0 46.1 Brown, 329; Varley, p. 212; Titsingh, 194
  47. Brown, 333; Varley, pp. 214–215; Titsingh, 200
  48. Brown, 334; Varley, pp. 215–220; Titsingh, 207
  49. Varley, pp 220
  50. Varley, pp. 221–223
  51. Brown, 343; Varley, pp. 223–226; Titsingh, pp. 236–238.
  52. Varley, pp. 226–227
  53. Varley, p. 227
  54. Varley, pp. 228–231
  55. Varley, pp. 231–232
  56. Varley, pp. 232–233
  57. Varley, pp. 233–237
  58. Varley, pp. 238–239
  59. Varley, p. 239; Titsingh, 275
  60. Varley, pp. 239–241
  61. Varley, pp. 241–269
  62. Titsingh, 327
  63. Titsingh, 331
  64. Titsingh, 352
  65. Titsingh, {364
  66. Titsingh, 372
  67. Titsingh, 382
  68. Titsingh, 411
  69. Titsingh, 414
  70. Titsingh, 418
  71. Titsingh, 419
  72. Titsingh, 420
  73. Titsingh, 421
  74. The National Diet Library (NDL) website explains that "Japan organized its first calendar in the 12th year of Suiko (604)", which was a pre-nengō time frame; Nussbaum, Louis-Frédéric. (2005). "Jikkan Jūnishi" in Japan Encyclopedia
  75. NengoCalc (655) 斉明 Saimei
  76. NengoCalc (622) 天智 Tenji
  77. NengoCalc (672) 弘文 Kōbun
  78. NengoCalc (673) 弘文 Temmu
  79. NengoCalc (687) 持統 Jitō
  80. NengoCalc (697) 文武 Mommu

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